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HANDS-ON FIELD ACTIVITIES FOR COMMUNITY-BASED ADAPTATION
Module OL 340: Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change
Posted by Tim Magee

CSDi is pleased to present a compilation of Community Based Adaptation Field Activities—complete with links to source materials and technical information—compiled from case studies & from projects developed by CSDi field partners & online students. We encourage you to submit activities: Online.Learning@csd-i.org.

USE:
1. Scan the list of activities for ideas targeted at solving your project’s challenge
2. Then click on their source links for expanded information
3. Finally, activity-specific field guides for your new activities can be found in these links:
List of Web Resources Arranged by Development Sector
CBA Specific Links
CSDi Field Tools Arranged by Sector

CONTENTS:

1. AGRICULTURE.

a. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION FOR AGRICULTURE.
b. DEVELOPING WATER FOR AGRICULTURE.
c. AGRICULTURE IN FLOOD-PRONE OR WATERLOGGED AREAS.
d. CBA TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURE.

2. SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES.

3. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION.

4. ENERGY.

5. LIVELIHOOD.

6. HEALTH & SANITATION.

7. CBA PROJECT DESIGN.

8. CBA PARTICIPATORY INCLUSION.

9. LONG-TERM INVESTMENTS.

10. GENERAL RESOURCES.

 


1. AGRICULTURE

 

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SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION FOR AGRICULTURE:
IFPRI Are Soil and Water Conservation Technologies a Buffer Against Production Risk in the Face of Climate Change?
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/rb15_17.pdf

Contour leveling: Level planting rows across hillside
Soil and stone bunds to control runoff, increase soil moisture and reduce soil erosion
Planting grass strips, trees, hedgerows across the contour to reduce runoff velocity; improve water infiltration; trap sediment
Low-till/No-till
Mulching for reducing evaporation -- and improved soil moisture retention
Mulching for reducing erosion caused by raindrop impact
Mulching for increasing organic material in the soil
Soil restoration – increasing the amount of organic material in the soil
Depressions to catch water for soil penetration; infiltration ditches
Channel water: Waterways to direct precipitation flows along specified pathways in farm fields
Shade trees to reduce evaporation and wind erosion
Micro-irrigation in low rainfall areas
Irrigation systems in high rainfall areas

ILEIA Learning AgriCultures. Seven Module educational series on small-scale farming sustainability
http://www.agriculturesnetwork.org/resources/learning
Mulching for reducing loss of moisture to evaporation, for controlling weeds and for adding nutrients to the soil
Mulching with crop residues
Using cover crops, green manure and leguminous plants to help maintain soil fertility, safeguard against erosion, and control weeds
Applying manure or compost for increasing nutrients in the soil and for improving its capacity to retain water
Diversifying cropping systems, intercropping and using crop rotations to help buffer the nutrient cycle in the soil and reduce erosion
Improved fallows–fertilizer tree fallows–by planting nitrogen fixing, fast-growing trees that produce easily decomposable biomass, and improve soil physical conditions
Using trees to help safeguard the soil from accelerated erosion, compaction and for improving water infiltration
Reducing herbicides and pesticides to protect beneficial soil organisms and improve the health of farmers and their families
Practice conservation tillage
Improve water buffers through 3 processes: recharge, reuse and retention
Sub surface dams in riverbeds
Sand storage dams
Local surface water harvesting ponds
Dune and riverbank infiltration
Plug field gullies to control water loss
Controlled drainage
Contour bunds
Retention basins
Using infield water conservation and rainwater retention practices
Repair and maintain inefficient or leaking irrigation systems
Facilitate farmer access to land and water resources
Facilitate women's access to land
Land ownership titles
Legal status of community land
Sustainable intensification of farming practices through conservation agriculture, construction of terraces, efficient irrigation, better water management, and agroforestry techniques
Community cooperation at a watershed level so all farmers can benefit from good soil and water conservation practices
Promotion of committees for local planning and improved management of land and water resources by farmers, such as shared canal systems or maintenance of hillside forests
Watershed improvement programs to control erosion, improve soil moisture and recharge groundwater
Promote soil laboratories for small-scale farmers for increased information about their soil
Increase awareness among farmers about the importance of micronutrients in the soil
Increase awareness among farmers about the importance of macronutrients in the soil
Agroecological restoration
Collect rainwater runoff from rooftops and store it in underground plastic lined reservoirs
Use Vetiver grass for disaster mitigation and for controlling soil loss from erosion and water runoff
Conservation Agriculture:

zero tillage
cover crops and green manures
crop, weed and cover crop residues applied his mulch
direct seeding or planting
no burning of crop residues
no uncontrolled grazing
crop rotations and intercropping

 

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DEVELOPING WATER FOR AGRICULTURE
Water from Rocks: using rock formations as a basis for collecting and storing water from rainstorms in arid locations.
http://www.waterforaridland.com/publications.asp
http://www.thewaterchannel.tv/index.php?option=com_hwdvideoshare&task=viewvideo&Itemid=53&video_id=639
Water harvesting structures including dams, ponds, and diversions, ensure water availability in the dry season
Rehabilitate/de-silt existing dams
Protection of water catchments
 
GTZ: Climate Change Information for Effective Adaptation - A Practitioners Manual
http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/gtz2009-0175en-climate-change-information.pdf
Rooftop rainwater harvesting
Purifying water
Higher efficiency of water usage during the threat of a possible drought
  
IDS Tearfund: Adapting to Climate Change p. 6
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/website/Campaigning/policy%20and%20research/Adapting%20to%20climate%20change%20discussion%20paper.pdf
Reduce leaks in community water systems
Develop educational programs to raise awareness for water conservation and adaptation options
Develop water conservation irrigation techniques
Refresh and disseminate traditional coping strategies for variable rainfall
Encourage people to use grey water for watering gardens and livestock
Use water recycling technologies
Use techniques that slow the flow of water thus increasing time for replenishing groundwater -- dikes and check dams
Form low dikes made of stones across the contour of a valley causing water to sink deeper into the soil making it available for crops

SIWI Adapting Water Management to Climate Change
http://www.siwi.org/documents/Resources/Policy_Briefs/SWHWaterClimate.pdf
Revive interest in traditional water harvesting systems; half moon barriers
Restore poorly maintained irrigation facilities
Maintain and establish wetlands to trap nutrients and provide food and fodder for people and livestock
Expansion of rainwater harvesting to improve rain fed cultivation and groundwater recharge
Restoration of aquatic habitats and ecosystems services
Increase storage capacity by building reservoirs
Remove invasive non-native vegetation from riparian areas
Improvement of water use efficiency by water recycling
Improved management of irrigated agriculture by changing the cropping calendar, crop mix, irrigation method, and repair and maintenance of irrigation infrastructure

FAO: Livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in drought prone areas of Bangladesh
ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/a0820e/a0820e.pdf
Re-excavation of ponds and canals
Construction of mini-ditches for use in harvesting rainwater for supplemental irrigation
Construction of mini ponds for supplemental irrigation

 

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AGRICULTURE IN FLOOD-PRONE OR WATERLOGGED AREAS
IDS Tearfund: Adapting to Climate Change p. 12
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/website/Campaigning/policy%20and%20research/Adapting%20to%20climate%20change%20discussion%20paper.pdf
Raised garden beds in flood-prone or waterlogged areas
Growing vegetables on floating gardens
Rearing ducks

GTZ: Climate Change Information for Effective Adaptation - A Practitioners Manual
http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/gtz2009-0175en-climate-change-information.pdf
 Improved watershed management

SIWI Adapting Water Management to Climate Change
http://www.siwi.org/documents/Resources/Policy_Briefs/SWHWaterClimate.pdf
Protection of water sources during flooding; elevated well platforms
Flood water drainage
Construction of flood protection infrastructure
Enlargement of riparian areas
Increase upstream storage
Restoration and maintenance of wetlands for hydrological services and provision of food and fodder
Improved flood forecasting and early warning systems
Encourage people in sustaining and improving their local ecosystems in ways that support their livelihoods and adaptive capacities
Construction of small reservoirs for sustainable household and agricultural water availability
Rehabilitate defunct, poorly functioning, high leakage water storage tanks and irrigation canals including desiltation and lining tank canals associations to
Forming water user associations to ensure lasting commitment to continued maintenance of tanks and canals
Encourage agroforestry techniques to increase the resilience of ecosystems by supporting biodiversity, decreasing soil erosion, improving water absorption, and enhancing soil fertility

 

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CBA TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURE
Information and communication technology: mobile phones
Seed banks
Grain banks
Raising seedlings in seed trays to get an early start on the season

IDS Tearfund: Adapting to Climate Change p. 6
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/website/Campaigning/policy%20and%20research/Adapting%20to%20climate%20change%20discussion%20paper.pdf
Conservation agriculture: minimum tillage which traps moisture, improves soil quality, minimizes soil erosion and creates growing conditions which exhibit a high drought tolerance
Monitor species and the amount of vegetation within a community to assess impacts of climate change
Ask community members to report on invasive species and changes in growing patterns to promote climate change awareness
Adopt early warning systems relevant for agriculture using weather forecasting tools

IFPRI Micro-level Practices to Adapt to Climate Change for African Small Scale Farmers
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp00953.pdf
Adjust timing of processes like planting, weeding and harvesting
Improved and more timely weather forecasts
Drought resistant livestock breeds
In times of drought reduced crop production and focus on livestock management
Gain access to land during drought where there is a water source for irrigation
Use cover crops to enhance seedling survival
GIS-based decision support for rain water harvesting
Remote sensing and limited field survey to identify potential sites for rain water harvesting technologies
Terrace sloping fields
Diversification by farmers of non-agricultural livelihood strategies such as the sale of non-timber forest products

IFPRI Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Climate Change and Variability
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/rb15_08.pdf
Sensitization of farmers to climate change concepts and their potential impacts

CARE: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
Cold frames to start seedlings earlier in the spring and to extend growing season

IFPRI Understanding Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptations to Climate Change and Variability
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/rb15_08.pdf
Traditional seed use in low rainfall areas
Improved seed in high rainfall areas
Drought tolerant crops/Drought resistant crop varieties
Raised beds for waterlogged soil and mild flooding
Mixed cropping
Plant different crops
Diversify crops
Change crop varieties
Change planting dates
Mixed farming systems
Increase irrigation
Change the amount of land grazed or under cultivation
Supplement livestock feed
Crop Livestock Integration
Provide information to farmers about appropriate adaptation measures
Agricultural Extension; expand with highly qualified personnel
Credit for investments such as irrigation, equipment, livestock food supplements
Diversify portfolios
Clear property rights in order to make adaptation decisions involving their land such as changing the amount of land under cultivation
Diversification on and beyond the farm
Expanding smallholder farmers’ access to off-farm income sources increases the probability that they will be able to afford adaptation measures
Smart irrigation
Promote efficient water use
Strengthen farm level managerial capacity
Facilitate a smooth transition from subsistence to commercial farming

CIAT Agriculture & Climate Change: creating adaptation road maps
http://www.ciat.cgiar.org/Newsroom/Documents/climate_change.pdf
Alternate sources of income
Cold Tolerant crops
 
Oxfam: the Rain Doesn't Come Anymore (Ethiopia)
http://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/rain-poverty-vulnerability-climate-ethiopia-2010-04-22.pdf
Livelihood diversity: Identification of and vocational training for alternative livelihoods
Diversify Livelihoods: Beyond farming, villagers are also raising small ruminants and chickens, as well as keeping bees to compensate for dwindling livestock
Shift in animal husbandry: from an open grazing system to tethered feeding with collected and conserved crop residues. This practice is a response to the diminishing grazing resource due to both climate extremes and man-made environmental degradation
Diversify into high-value crops
Manual pumps for increasing irrigation
Forest conservation management practices
Agro-forestry practices such as planting multipurpose trees
Community Forestry
Diversify energy sources: biogas plants, solar energy, improved cook stoves, reforestation programs
Drought tolerant livestock breeds
Migrate temporarily with cattle to places with available feed and water
Reduce and gradually abandon charcoal making
Increase the productivity of land that is already under production rather than expanding to virginal land
Make compost
Use manure in farm fields
Dig shallow ponds to collect rainwater
Pastoralists continue a traditional practice of fencing and scheduling pastureland into wet and dry season grazing areas
Grow hay and store it to use as animal feed during dry months
Preserve fodder for cattle for use during the dry season
Early maturing crops
Change heard composition from cattle to camels and goats
Use crop residues as animal feed.

IFPRI Strategies for Adapting to Climate Change in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp01013.pdf
Diversification of crops rather than monoculture
Rather than concentrate the planting of the crop in a single window of time (which entails a high level of risk in an unpredictable climate area), plant a succession of crops in small areas at different times of the year. This increases the chances of harvesting food needed for survival from at least some of these areas
Reduce overall livestock numbers by sale or slaughter
Herd size management
Crossbreeding, zero grazing, and keeping smaller livestock such as sheep or goats
Inaugurate community-based management programs for forestry, rangelands, and national parks
Grow crops most sensitive to fungal diseases during seasons with low rainfall -- or even during dry seasons
Promote value added, storage, and postharvest techniques for agricultural projects
Improve local breeds by crossing them with highly productive breeding stock
Intensify livestock production through improved proper feeding conditions and encouraging the planting of forage crops
Conduct an ongoing public awareness and education program about safeguarding the environment
Implement a strategy for the conservation of biodiversity through the protection and restoration of plant cover
Involve local communities in the management and protection of forests to improve their living conditions
Control pests and plant diseases through regular weeding, crop rotation, and the planting of appropriate crops
Implement community-based rehabilitation and management of rangelands
Improve/enhance range low and resource management practices in pastoral areas
Construct shelter belts to reduce windstorm impact on rangelands
Survey business employment needs in order to identify job opportunities and diversify household income
Provide vocational training programs targeted to these new job opportunities
Reduce overall livestock numbers while improving productivity of the livestock retained
Promote agroforestry practices as a way of diversifying land production systems
Encourage afforestation of degraded watersheds by constructing terraces, micro basins, and check dams
Enhanced groundwater recharging mechanisms
Encourage natural regeneration of pasture by using enclosures
Introducing and expanding spate-irrigated agriculture
Implement water supply projects by constructing new dams, ponds and wells
Construct livestock watering points
Use groundwater recharging for irrigation wells
Strengthening/enhancing drought and flood early warning systems
Create strong and resilient ecosystems to help reduce the economic and social vulnerability of local people
Focus on the rehabilitation and reclamation of degraded land, reforestation, and the conservation, management, and protection of natural resources
Establish associations and make them more dynamic for managing water resources
Promotion of zero grazing techniques
Reduce pressure on local forests through the use of mud brick building design
Extension services in agriculture for small-scale farmers
Develop community tree seedling nurseries
Dune fixation
Drying food in order to preserve it for the lean season

FAO: “Climate-Smart” Agriculture
http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/newsroom/docs/the-hague-conference-fao-paper.pdf
IDS Agrobiodiversity Key to Adaptation
http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=51536
Zai Pits: Planting pits concentrate nutrients and water and facilitate water in filtration and retention
Install sediment traps in the fields and canals to capture sediment for return to fields
Plant crops in small, circular pits perpendicular to the slope of a hill to capture rainwater and retain soil moisture
Efficient seed production systems to ensure rapid access of farmers to varieties adapted to their agro-ecological conditions
Small metal silos: improved technologies for reducing postharvest crop losses
Conservation Agriculture: 1. Minimal mechanical soil disturbance (no till). 2. Maintenance of a mulch covering and feeding the soil, 3. Crop rotations
Establishing demonstration plots in training farmers for conservation agriculture
Biogas Digesters: anaerobic digestion of manure for producing useful energy and a fertilizer slurry to improve soil quality
Composting manure for crops - substituting inorganic fertilizers for organic manure
Urban and peri-urban agriculture
Urban micro-gardens and urban rooftop gardens

Care: Climate-related vulnerability and adaptive-capacity in Ethiopia’s Borana and Somali communities
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/reports/Ethiopia_Pastoralists_Report2009.pdf

FAO Livelihood adaptation to climate variability and change in drought-prone areas of Bangladesh – Developing institutions and options: A case study http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0820e/a0820e00.htm
Intercooperation. India Case Study: System of Rice Intensification
http://www.intercooperation.org.in/images/Climate%20Change%20-%20Case%20study%20on%20The%20System%20of%20Rice%20Intensification.pdf
Rice production in Bangladesh and India
Rice intensification
Direct sown rice
Drought resistant rice varieties
Re-excavation of traditional ponds and canals
Mini ponds
Supplemental irrigation
Green manure
Homestead Gardens
Alternate enterprise including Mango Homestead Gardens and mulberry intercropping in rice
Improved seed storage for higher viability
Storage facilities for retaining rainwater
Women’s farmer clubs: they pool resources, tools, seeds and knowledge about agricultural practices so they can respond collectively to decreases in food production.
Farmer-to-farmer schools

ILEIA Learning AgriCultures. Seven Module educational series on small-scale farming sustainability
http://ileia.leisa.info/index.php?url=show-blob-html.tpl&p[o_id]=238709&p[a_id]=237&p[a_seq]=0
System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and efficient use of water

 

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2. SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES
IFPRI Strategies for Adapting to Climate Change in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp01013.pdf
Protect buffer zones on shorelines such as mangrove
Implement a management program for mangroves
Promote research to bridge existing knowledge gaps regarding sea level rise
Fight erosion of coastal areas through biological means
Revise policies for managing the development of coastal area cities
Strengthen integrated coastal area management practices
Implement community-based sustainable use and management of wetlands in selected areas
Install embankments/barriers in coastal areas to reduce erosion from waves
Develop protection areas for the most vulnerable coastal infrastructure
Establish protected marine areas
Rehabilitate natural coastal defenses
Implement a climate resilient coastal resources management plan

Climate Change and Small Island Development States: a Critical Review. Kelman and West
http://eea.anthro.uga.edu/index.php/eea/article/viewArticle/69
Strengthen meteorological services
Strengthen early warning systems
Raise awareness and understanding of climate change, variability and sea level rise
Raise awareness and understanding of vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation
Detailed mapping of topography and bathymetry
Participatory three dimensional mapping for planning in the context of environmental change

FAO: “Climate-Smart” Agriculture
http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/newsroom/docs/the-hague-conference-fao-paper.pdf
Farming of seaweed, oysters and clams
Aquasilviculture: aquaculture and mangrove forestry - mangrove forest ponds with pens for fish and crabs
Energy efficient fishing: well-designed and responsibly-used passive fishing gear such as gill nets, pots, hooks and lines, and traps

Mangrove Action Project
http://mangroveactionproject.org/map-programs/restoration/six-steps-to-successful-mangrove-restoration
6 Steps to Successful Ecological Mangrove Restoration

 

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3. EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION
Care: Community-Based Adaptation Toolkit
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/toolkit/CARE_CBA_Toolkit.pdf
Incorporate disaster risk reduction into CBA projects
Ensure that communities have reserves of food, water and agricultural inputs so that these important resources are available to them in times of crisis

IDS Tearfund: Adapting to Climate Change p. 4
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/website/Campaigning/policy%20and%20research/Adapting%20to%20climate%20change%20discussion%20paper.pdf
Develop flood and storm risk prevention committees
Move animals to higher places before floods arrive
Practice for flood evacuations
Plant mangrove plantations to act as a buffer zone that reduces water velocity, wave strength and wind energy thereby protecting coastal land, human life and assets invested in development
DRR projects should establish working relationships with meteorological departments at local universities
A first step risk mapping exercise could identify communities living in marginal areas who are effectively on the front line as climate stresses increase Community disaster education programs should include modules that highlight adaptation options

Tearfund: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction tool for development organizations
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/Website/Campaigning/Policy%20and%20research/Mainstreaming%20disaster%20risk%20reduction.pdf
Help local people assess and reduce disaster risk by incorporating participatory techniques in assessing vulnerability

ILEIA Learning AgriCultures. Seven Module educational series on small-scale farming sustainability
http://ileia.leisa.info/index.php?url=show-blob-html.tpl&p[o_id]=238709&p[a_id]=237&p[a_seq]=0
Use Vetiver grass for disaster mitigation

Community Based Disaster Risk Management- Field Practitioners Handbook: ADPC 2004
http://www.adpc.net/pdr-sea/publications/12handbk.pdf

 

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4. ENERGY
IDS Tearfund: Adapting to Climate Change p. 6
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/website/Campaigning/policy%20and%20research/Adapting%20to%20climate%20change%20discussion%20paper.pdf
Renewable energy options to reduce dependence on fuel wood collection
Exploit renewable energy sources such as solar power and micro-hydro
Encourage the use of improved woodstoves
Production and use of biogas

South Centre: The Role of Decentralized Renewable Energy Technologies and Adaptation to Climate Change in Developing Countries
http://www.southcentre.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=857&Itemid=1
Reduce energy poverty and economic marginalization:

micro-hydropower
solar cookers
biogas from small-scale digesters
biomass direct combustion
solar photovoltaic
small wind turbines
mechanical wind pumps
solar photovoltaic pumps
solar crop dryers 
solar water heaters

 

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5. LIVELIHOOD
IDS Tearfund: Adapting to Climate Change p. 6
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/website/Campaigning/policy%20and%20research/Adapting%20to%20climate%20change%20discussion%20paper.pdf
Livelihood diversity
Plant mangrove plantations for the production of viable exports such as shrimp and crab and create new employment opportunities

Care: Community-Based Adaptation Toolkit
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/toolkit/CARE_CBA_Toolkit.pdf
Establish access to credit to help fund livelihood diversification start up costs
Establish savings schemes in order to help households better coping in times of crisis when their regular means of survival are not available to them
Ensure that communities have access to critical information such as seasonal forecasts in an effort to better manage their livelihoods in a context of uncertainty
 
IFPRI Strategies for Adapting to Climate Change in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp01013.pdf
Promote and strengthen aquaculture and poultry raising as alternative livelihood options
Promote modern production practices (standards and quality)

 

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6. HEALTH & SANITATION
IDS Tearfund: Adapting to Climate Change p. 6
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/website/Campaigning/policy%20and%20research/Adapting%20to%20climate%20change%20discussion%20paper.pdf
Early warning systems for a range of diseases sensitive to climate change
Early warning systems for child malnutrition
Make health authorities aware of scientific and meteorological predictions related to potential epidemics, heat waves and floods
Train public health workers to use seasonal climate forecasts to identify health risks

IFPRI Strategies for Adapting to Climate Change in Rural Sub-Saharan Africa
http://www.ifpri.org/sites/default/files/publications/ifpridp01013.pdf
Introduce preventative measures to restrict malaria transmission such as mosquito nets and treatment/drying up of breeding areas
Improve the quality of water supply and sanitation systems
Improve emergency preparedness
Encourage supplementary feeding and breast-feeding
Use epidemic forecasting, early warnings, and response
Organize and implement community-based health education programs to create awareness and develop knowledge of personal hygiene and environmental health management
Provide training programs to build human capacity to improve healthcare extension services at the local level
Inform population about the construction of latrines
Prevention of waterborne diseases by fighting vector transmission
Intensify hygiene practices, including water boiling and hand washing, especially during floods

WaterSanitationHygiene.org
http://www.watersanitationhygiene.org/

 

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7. CBA PROJECT DESIGN
UNDP Designing Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives - UNDP Toolkit for Practitioners
http://www.adaptationlearning.net/sites/default/files/17750_CC_un_toolbox_0.pdf
Articulate the climate change-driven problem
Design initiatives to respond to the specific needs of the defined problem
Consult with stakeholders
Review existing published information
Identify the cause
Articulate desired long-term outcome
Develop an exit strategy
Interdisciplinary expert team

CSDi OL 343: Adapting to Climate Change: The Community Focus. Syllabus.
http://www.csd-i.org/ol-343-adapting-climate-change/
1. Analyze conditions and hazards
CARE: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
2. Importance of local knowledge
IIED: PLA Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change
http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/14573IIED.pdf
CARE: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
3. Importance of scientific knowledge
IIED: PLA Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change
http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/14573IIED.pdf
CARE: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
4. Assess, interpret and communicate climate change information
GTZ: Climate Change Information for Effective Adaptation - A Practitioners Manual
http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib/gtz2009-0175en-climate-change-information.pdf
5. CBA project design needs to be community led process, based on community's priorities and needs
IIED: PLA Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change
http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/14573IIED.pdf
6. Identification of local vulnerabilities. Vulnerability Matrix: What is a prioritization of the community's greatest hazards they face?
CARE: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
7. Determination of community capacity
CARE: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
8. Existing coping mechanisms
CARE: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
9. Articulate the context
10. Feedback from the community of project design and ownership by the community of the project
UNDP Designing Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives - UNDP Toolkit for Practitioners
http://www.adaptationlearning.net/sites/default/files/17750_CC_un_toolbox_0.pdf
11. Increase the climate resilience of communities by improving local adaptive capacity to empower them to make changes themselves
IDS Tearfund: Adapting to Climate Change p. 6
http://www.tearfund.org/webdocs/website/Campaigning/policy%20and%20research/Adapting%20to%20climate%20change%20discussion%20paper.pdf
IIED: PLA Community-Based Adaptation to Climate Change
http://www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/14573IIED.pdf
UNDP Gender, Climate Change and Community-Based Adaptation: A Guidebook for Designing and Implementing Gender-Sensitive Community-Based Adaptation Programmes and Projects
12. Direct involvement of local stakeholders from the beginning of the process
UNDP Designing Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives - UNDP Toolkit for Practitioners
http://www.adaptationlearning.net/sites/default/files/17750_CC_un_toolbox_0.pdf

 

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8. CBA PARTICIPATORY INCLUSION

 

Adapting to Climate Change: The Community Focus. Syllabus.
http://www.csd-i.org/ol-343-adapting-climate-change/
Classic Series of Steps in Forming Village Committees:
1.a. Facilitating a community assessment
1.b. Fostering community commitment
1.c. Incorporating local knowledge

 

2.a. Introducing the concept of a specific village committee and a participatory workshop setting. Hoping participants to gain a better understanding of the rationale and importance of forming this committee
2.b. Going through the step-by-step procedure of forming a committee with the workshop participant
2.c. Electing or pointing committee members

3.a. Learning the importance of organizational building and development
3.b. Training and organizational development
3.c. Initiating the governing status of the organization

4.a. Training in the skills sets that committee members will need within the specific focus of the committee (agriculture, forestry, water, health, etc. )
4.b. Setting goals and management responsibilities
4.c. Implementation of committee goals
4.d. Monitoring and evaluation of implementation successes

CSDi OL 341: From the Ground Up for Adaptation
http://www.csd-i.org/storage/ol-101-course-documents/Ten-Seed%20Technique-Revised.pdf
10 Seed Technique: Participatory Needs Assessments

WWF Vulnerability Assessment of People, Livelihoods and Ecosystems in the Ganga Basin
http://assets.wwfindia.org/downloads/vulnerability_assessment___ganga_basin.pdf
UNDP Designing Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives - UNDP Toolkit for Practitioners
http://www.adaptationlearning.net/sites/default/files/17750_CC_un_toolbox_0.pdf
Vulnerability assessment and adaptive capacity

CARE: Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/adaptation/CARE_CVCAHandbook.pdf
Analyze conditions and hazards
Analyze Vulnerability to Climate Change
Analyze Adaptive Capacity
Existing Coping Mechanisms
Combine community knowledge with scientific data
Promotion of climate resilient livelihoods
Disaster risk reduction
Capacity development
Advocacy and social mobilization
Addressing underlying causes of vulnerability
Hazard Mapping
Seasonal Calendar
Historical Timeline
Vulnerability matrix
Analyze vulnerability of women

UNDP Designing Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives - UNDP Toolkit for Practitioners
http://www.adaptationlearning.net/sites/default/files/17750_CC_un_toolbox_0.pdf
Develop an appropriate community managed monitoring and evaluation plan

Care: Community-Based Adaptation Toolkit
http://www.careclimatechange.org/files/toolkit/CARE_CBA_Toolkit.pdf
Promote adaptation in communities that address specific challenges that are gender sensitive and address challenges faced by marginalized groups

 

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9. LONG-TERM INVESTMENTS
UNDP Designing Climate Change Adaptation Initiatives - UNDP Toolkit for Practitioners
http://www.adaptationlearning.net/sites/default/files/17750_CC_un_toolbox_0.pdf
Increase technical capacity by providing school children and adults with a high level of education in the context specific livelihood adaptation
Government invests in expanding agricultural extension service with staff highly skilled in implementing adaptation measures

 

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10. GENERAL RESOURCES
IISD Listserves.
Receive announcements about climate change, SIDS, Forests, Water, and sustainable development events and information
http://climate-l.iisd.org/2010/12/07/climate-l-org-becomes-climate-change-policy-and-practice/?referrer=iisdrs_announcement

Eldis Community: Community Based Adaptation Exchange Group
http://community.eldis.org/indexhome.html

CSDi Development Community: Adapting to Climate Change Group
http://developmentcommunity.csd-i.org/group/adaptingtoclimatechange